First described in 1958, hairy-cell leukemia is a slow growing cancer of the white blood cells. The name comes from the hair-like projections from the cells. Patients possessing the disease exhibit anemia, increased infections, poor blood clotting, abdominal pain from splenic swelling, and weight loss.
An organism is described as heterozygous for a gene if that organism possesses different copies, or alleles, of a specific gene or trait on each of the equivalent chromosomes (see Chromosomes and Dominant).
The secret research facility of the Umbrella Corporation where the T-virus is manufactured in the fictional series Resident Evil (see T-virus).
An organism is described as homozygous for a gene if that organism possesses possess identical copies, or alleles, of a specific gene or trait on the equivalent chromosomes (see Chromosomes and Recessive).
Human Genome Project
A project initiated in 1990 and completed in 2003 intended to identify all the genes in a human genome, sequence these genes, provide a means to disseminate these sequences to researchers, develop new molecular biological technologies, and evaluate the ethical, legal, and social issues that might arise from the project. The project was coordinated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health.
Immortal cell lines
A cell line that has the ability to proliferate indefinitely under the proper tissue culture conditions. Immortal cell lines can be isolated from some forms of cancerous tissue or transformed (created) by infection with specific viruses.
Literally meaning to “place form within,” the word “information” is used in many different ways for very different purposes. Many studying communication through language are interested in the informational content of messages, although most conceptions of information now include the informational content of patterns, sense stimuli, or changes in affective states. Throughout this project we will mostly use the term information to suggest a change or difference in the world that then registers as a difference with the user.
A political-economic form of society that uses informational tools or processes (such as the tools to arrange data) to create informational products. Originally understood as an entirely new modality in society, it is now generally recognized that informational societies use and extend industrial processes by adding an irreducible layer of novel social dynamics.
INRA or L’Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique
Known in English as the French National Institute for Agricultural Research, the INRA is the largest agricultural research institute in Europe.
An innovation ecology favored by some wishing to interpret current patent and copyright law so as to recognize a domain of intellectual property free from property rights. Under this model, rights of ownership would only be granted when material from the commons is transformed into a novel product or process (see Copyright and Patent).
A period in geological history that begins at the end of the Triassic (about 199.6 million years ago) and ends at the Cretaceous Periods (about 145.4 million years ago). It was named by geologist Alexandre Brogniart for the marine limestone deposits found in the Jura Mountains in Germany. It is commonly understood as the age when dinosaurs existed.