Further Reading: Science Modeling and Databases

Discussions of the use of modeling in science include John Holland's distinction between static and dynamic models, where dynamic models are used to study time-based processes and are easily run on computers; see John H. Holland, Emergence: From Chaos to Order (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). The essays in Models as Mediators: Perspectives on Natural and Social Science, edited by Mary S. Morgan and Margaret Morrison (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999) and Models: The Third Dimension of Science (Stanford, Calif.: Sanford University Press, 2004) have also been useful. More recently, Evelyn Fox Keller has looked in detail at the role of modeling in biological knowledge during the twenty first century, Making Sense of Life: Explaining Biological Development with Models, Metaphors, and Machines (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003).

The history of databases in genomics is well documented by Tim Lenoir in "Shaping Biomedicine as an Information Science," Proceedings of the 1998 Conference on the History and Heritage of Science Information Systems, Eds. Mary Ellen Bowden, Trudi Bellardo Hahn, and Robert V. Williams, ASIS Monograph Series, (Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc., 1999), pp. 27-45.