Further Reading: Biology and "Information"

For discussions of different twentieth century concepts of “information,” see John R. Pierce, Symbols, Signals, and Noise: The Nature and Process of Communication (New York: Harper, 1961) and N. Katherine Hayles, How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1999), especially pp. 1-83.

For a quick overview of the differences between concepts of information in engineering, genetics, and economics, see Robert Mitchell and Phillip Thurtle, Data Made Flesh: Embodying Information (New York: Routledge, 2003), pp. 6-10.

For a useful discussion of the place of Bell Lab researcher Claude Shannon in the early development of mathematical theories of information, see Lily E. Kay, Who Wrote the Book of Life? A History of the Genetic Code (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000), pp. 91-102.